Calculations for PERT and CPM are not particularly difficult-they require no more than simple arithmetic. They can get lengthy and sometimes convoluted, especially since CPM requires frequent recalculation. So, while it can be done with pencil and paper, frequently it is done with the aid of computers-simple spreadsheets, or even dedicated application programs like Microsoft Project.

When calculating PERT and CPM without a dedicated application program, it is best to approach it in a stepwise process (Krueckeberg & Silvers, 1974, pp. 231-255).

### PERT Analysis

1. Define tasks to be performed
3. Estimate time to complete each task ("normal time")
• use 3 estimates: most optimistic (a), most pessimistic (b), and most likely (m)
• weighting most likely time, determine expected ("average")time:
• t=(a+4m+b)/6
4. Determine earliest expected date for completion of tasks and activity
• always assign the longest time-path to the completion date
• the "longest" path is the critical path
5. For each task, determine the latest allowable time for moving to the next task
• difference between latest time and expected time is slack time
6. Determine probability of meeting the expected time
• use time range (b-a) to estimate standard deviation of time for each activity (i.e., estimate of average deviation from expected time):
• sd=(b-a)/6
• add the estimated deviations along the critical path to determine the probability of completing the project within a specified time:
• prob=SqRt(Sum[sd**2])
• Read this formula as "Probability equals the square root of the sum of the squared standard deviations for each activity on the critical path"
7. In PERT, shift the allocation of resources from slack activities to activities on the critical path, and revise time estimates and probability estimates. Usually, you would not settle just for shifting based on time saving, but would move at this point to CPM and consider time and money in determining the optimal path.

A typical PERT table might have the following structure:

 Activity Beginning Ending a m b expected sd Foundatn 1 2 1 2 3 2 .33 Frame 2 3 1 4 6 4 .83

### CPM Analysis

1. Develop time and cost data ("normal" and "crashed") for all tasks
2. Develop cost-per-week for crashing (crashed costs divided by time saved)
3. Develop project network (PERT)
4. Crash the activity on the critical path with the lowest cost-for-crashing
5. Recalculate the project network (the critical path might change!)
6. Repeat steps 4 & 5 until all the paths have been crashed.
7. Ease up on all noncritical paths, just to the point that all paths are critical

A typical CPM table might have the following structure:

 Activty Beg. End Time-Crash Time-Norml Cost-Crash Cost-Norml Time Saved Cost Increas Cost / Week Fdn 1 2 1 2 4000 3000 1 1000 1000 Frame 2 3 1 4 8000 4000 3 4000 1333

In addition to tabular data, both CPM and PERT will generally include a graphic presentation of the network of activities, usually with the length of each activity (in time) indicated and the critical path marked distinctively.