Values, Morals, and Ethics
- Values influence Behavior(ethics) and Beliefs(morals)
- Beliefs are the basis of morals, and are part of the effect on
- Behavior is the domain of ethics, which may be
Rules for Ethical Behavior
- Golden Mean--moderation in all things
- Utilitarian--greatest good for greatest number
- Deontological--"act always so you can wish your maxim should become
- Aristotle's "Golden Rule"
- Kant's "Categorical Imperative"
- Rawl's "Veil of Ignorance"
- Situation Ethics--must have motive, means, and consequences
- Rule-Bound--rules, once accepted, may never be broken
Individuals in Organizations (Kathryn Denhardt)
- identify rules and objectives
- determine values and assumptions underlying rules
- assess ethical foundations of assumptions
- make ethical judgement
AICP Code of Ethics
Considerations in Making Ethical Judgements
- Marcuse--Accountants (rules) vs. Lawyers (interpretation)
- Regime values
- Public Interest Criterion
- what do people want
- what do people need
- what should people have
- Values of Professional Administrator
- Primacy of the Public (Ventriss)--publicness of inquiry
- Marcuse's dilemmas
- Do you do anything to get client's plan approved?
- Do you change recommendations or hold data private at request of mayor?
- Are you ever justified in working on a project which is not in the
public good (e.g., Pan Am building exaccerbating congestion in midtown
- Can a consultant represent both sides of an issue?
- Other Issues
- Citizen participation--is it only "cooling out the marks"?
- Truth-telling--is there a positive duty to tell the truth, or only not
- Mandatory drug testing--how does one balance an employer's right to
know against an individual's right to privacy?
- Equal Employment Opportunity--at what point does redressing past
injustice create new injustice in the present?
© 1997 A.J.Filipovitch
Revised 18 January 1997