Finding and Keeping the Right Employees

Recruiting, selecting and retaining the right employees:

The most important managerial function.


Ch: 23 pp 535-556

First Step

•      Develop as concrete a picture as possible of the job to be done AND write it down.

•      Outline fictional person with expectations on:

–    Functions

–    Responsibilities

–    Skills

–    Abilities

–    Behaviors

P 536

Functions of Job Description

•      Focus on clear, detailed, system-derived position requirements is main objective:

–   The job to be done and the qualifications necessary to do it.


•      Concretely pin down:

–   Major functions of position

–   Describe the academic, experiential and behavioral requirements.


p. 537




•      Your nonprofit is built on the people you hire.

•      The people you hire emerge out of your hiring practices.

•      Your nonprofit’s ability to attract “top-drawer” applicants is heavily influenced by quality of your recruitment and hiring process.

p. 537-538

Hiring Process Issues

•      Hiring Authority:

–   Who will be involved and who has final say?

•      Interviews

–   Who will be involved?

–   What kind of interview should be conducted?

–   How long should it last?

•      Interview DON’TS:

–   Interview questions are unlawful if they require applicants to provide information that can result in illegal discrimination.

p. 540-541





Things to avoid in interview

•      Unlawful questions like:

–    Number and age of children

–    Foreign language if not required for job

–    Race, ethnicity or religion

–    Birthplace

–    Age

–    Height and weight

–    Arrest history

–    Marital status

–    Military service record



•      General biases

–    Attractiveness

–    Speech pattern or pacing

–    Type of eye contact

–    Type of dress

–    Economic status

–    Tastes

–    Place of residence


Effective Interviewing:
Hitting the bull’s eye.

•      Basic Elements:

–    Courtesy

–    Objectivity

–    Legal correctness

–    Open-ended questions

–    Astute listening

•      Plan the interview

–    Have your set questions and decide who will ask them.

–    Plan beginning, body and end of interview.

p. 541


What the law requires

•      Nondiscrimination laws forbid all employers from making hiring decisions based on criteria that are either irrelevant to the job or inappropriately subjective.

Federal Regulations

•      Age Discrimination Employment Act, 1967,1978, 1986.

•      Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990

•      Civil Rights Act (Title VII) 1991

•      Equal Employment Opportunity Act, 1972.

•      Equal Pay Act, 1963

•      Fair Labor Standards Act

•      Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1985

•      Rehabilitation Act 1973.

•      Veterans Reemployment Rights Act

Affirmative Action

•      Affirmative action plan is either voluntary plan to help redress effects of past unfair hiring practices or (for federal contractors) to comply with OFCCP regulations.

•      Plan involves statement of problem (see OFCCP web site for help here) and analysis of “the numbers” to determine where the organization should be if hiring had been unaffected by bias.

Pay Range

•      Set minimum for appropriate hire and maximum for “perfect” hire.

•      Consider:

–   Market value of job

–   Salary equity issues with current, long-term employees.

Salary discussions

•      Only one person should be designated to discuss salary and compensation package.

•      Inform candidate early about who will be addressing compensation issues.

p. 544


•      Have recruitment plan that will assure that you reach your target audience.  “You can’t hire the best person if they don’t hear about the opening.”

•      Discuss as many options as reasonable:

–   Ads in local, regional or national papers.

–   Placement centers, colleges, technical schools,

–   Unemployment offices (state or local)

–   Staff- internal job posting

–   Networking: personal or business contacts.

Next steps in recruiting process

•      Read resumes or employment applications

•      Select most likely (on paper) for interview

•      Administer any tests: Work processing, writing, editing or ?

•      Narrow down the field to 2 – 5 candidates.

•      Send “turn-down” letter as you weed out candidates.

•      Provide packet to candidates: summary of benefits, vacation and relocation policy, information on organization, etc.

Other helpful hints

•      Think of process as “courtship.”  Communicate often, give no misinformation, respond completely and swiftly to questions. “The rule:” the more communication and interaction the better.

•      Narrowing the field should NOT involve redescribing the job to fit a candidate.

•      The final decision should emerge out of group discussion of everyone involved in interview.

p. 547-550

Closing the hiring deal 1

•      Discussing salary expectations:  Gather information, salary requirements, benefit package expectations anticipated job satisfaction, career development possibilities, opportunities in addition to job, possible assistance you can give.

•      Fact finding: no commitments at this stage.


Closing the hiring deal 2

•      Ask candidate to notify you if there is a competing offer.  This will put you in a better position to get the person you want.

•      Check References:  Have questions set.

–   Always get candidate’s permission.  Always respect candidates request for confidentiality.

–   Describe position and ask open-ended questions about candidates past demonstration of required capabilities.

–   Ask if there is someone else you should talk to.

p. 550-551


Closing the hiring deal 3

•      Making the offer:

–   Do NOT turn lose of an acceptable “runner-up” until you have a firm acceptance from first choice.

–   Be sure you have “go-ahead” from top.

–   Have negotiating strategies and facts in hand.

–   Don’t be afraid to table the offer if you are not sure about the deal.  You should always take the time necessary to have complete confidence in what is going on.

–   After successful offer - as soon as you get signed offer confirmation – tell unsuccessful candidates.