URBS 4/511 Urban Policy & Strategic Analysis

Building the Plan

Strategic Thinking

  1. The Concept: "How shall we define success? What will it take to achieve it?"
    • focus on integration & coordination
    • not comprehensive (hence, "strategic")
    • no one best solution ("satisfice")
    • way of thinking (not a cookbook)
  2. The model
    • Mission
    • Strategic Objectives
    • Resource Allocation
    • Implementation/Evaluation
  3. Mission (SWOT Analysis)
    • Internal audit (Strengths & Weaknesses)
    • External audit (Opportunities & Threats)
  4. Strategic Objectives (Emphasize distinctive competencies)
    • Portfolio Analysis


Declining or Steady Market Share

Growing Market Share

Increasing Growth Rate

Cash Cows


Declining or Steady Growth Rate


Question Marks

o        Organizational Analysis (7 Ss)

o        Shared values, Style

o        Staff, Systems, & Structure

o        Strategy, Skills

o        Industry Analysis

o        Buyers, suppliers, competitors

o        New entrants, substitutes

o        How will competition respond?

o        Stakeholder Analysis

o        Suppliers

o        Labor, management, stockholders

o        Competitors

o        Customers, community

5. Resource Allocation (Do what it takes)

    • Allocate new programs between established and new business
    • Protect the position (4 Ps)
      • Product
      • Promotion
      • Price
      • Place (distribution)

6. Implementation/Evaluation

    • Credible plan
    • Supportive action plans
    • Realistic resource allocation
    • Culturally compatible strategies
    • Good strategy monitoring system

Principles of Business Strategy

  1. Strategy should identify
    • Consumer (sales, receivables, inventories, fixed assets)--market segment & channels to market. But in public sector, must distinguish between "customer" (focused on satisfaction of own desire) and "citizen" (focused on common good and long-term consequences to community)--Robert Denhardt, PA Times, 2/97.
    • Production process (fixed assets, inventories, payables)--capacity needed
    • Financial structure (ROE= margin X turnover X leverage)--forecasts & capital attraction
    • Performance measures (final market & capital market)--outcome assessment, indicators of achievement
  2. Fiscal Control Issues
    • Allocate resources
      • capital budget, capital improvement plan
      • risk vs. return (cost of risk?)
    • Source of money
      • debt vs. Equity
      • cost of capital (how high is hurdle rate? single or multiple hurdles?)
  3. Measure and control progress
    • forecast the future
    • evaluate the past
  4. Rate of return
    • ROE (Return on equity) = Net income/ equity
    • ROE = Margin X Turnover X Leverage
    • Margin = Net income/ Sales
    • Turnover = Sales / Total assets
    • Leverage = Total assets / Equity
  5. Types of Budgets
    • Line-item (Personnel, Salary Overhead, Materials, Supplies, Equipment rental, General & Administrative, Profit)
    • Program Budget
    • PPBS
    • Performance Budget
    • ZBB
  6. Other Fiscal Tools
    • CIP
    • Fiscal Impact Assessment
    • Tax-increment Financing


2009 A.J.Filipovitch
Revised 20 May 2009