Inquiry & Discovery
i. What do I know? What do I think I know? What do I not know? What do I understand?
ii. It is not possible to address everything all at once
iii. Need time to think about questions, use existing knowledge and begin to identify what students do not know.
Robert Kunzman, The civic (and pedagogical) virtue of recognizing reasonable disagreement, Theory and Research in Social Education, 2006, 34(2), pp. 162-182.
1. Reasonable people may disagree about the best ways to live
2. The virtue of “reasonable disagreement” requires
a. Imaginative engagement
b. Mutual goodwill
3. Since conflicting eithical perspectives are often informed by religion, public schools should help students learn to engage thoughtfully and respectfully across these differences.
Christensen, Conducting public policy in conditions
of undertainty, Ch. 7 in Cities and Complexity: Making
1. A strategy of variability
a. Goals (outcomes, ends) may be agreed (prespecified) or not (open)
b. Technology (process, means) may be known (presecified) or unknown (open)
2. Structure of organization or policy formulation depends on structure of variability. For example, for organizational form:
a. Agreed/known—Stable rules (bureaucy/regulation)
b. Agreed/unknown—Change & expansion (decentralization/taskforces)
c. Open/known—Agreed “rules of the game” (forums, arenas, courts, collegial decisionmaking)
d. Open/unknown—Redundant checks
© 2004 A.J.Filipovitch
Revised 3 January 2006