Principles of Design


I.                    Principles of Design

a.       Unity                d.  Pattern                    g.  Balance

b.      Movement        e.  Rhythm                   

c.       Contrast           f.  Emphasis

II.                 Elements of Design

a.       Value (Brightness)

b.      Color

c.       Line

d.      Form

e.       Shape

f.        Space

g.       Texture

III.               Roger Clemence on Urban Design

a.       Color                           Light & Shadow

b.      Texture             Water                           Vegetation

c.       Change of Level           Edge Markers              Arrival

d.      Street Furniture

e.       Continuity & Change

IV.              HR Smith on Urban Design

a.       Reasons for Building

                                                               i.      Shelter

                                                             ii.      Privacy (& protection)

                                                            iii.      Variety of activity (& fit with environment)

                                                           iv.      Identity

b.      Determinants of Built Environment

                                                               i.      Scale

                                                             ii.      Human needs (both survival & comfort)

                                                            iii.      Activities within and around

                                                           iv.      Terrain & natural environment

                                                             v.      Building materials

                                                           vi.      Technology

                                                          vii.      Pathways

                                                        viii.      “Perceived relative importance” (both intrinsic & in context)

c.       Changing the Environment

                                                               i.      Movement (from place to place)

                                                             ii.      Adaptation

                                                            iii.      Addition

                                                           iv.      Subtraction (demolition)

V.                 Wm Whyte on Urban Design

a.       Suitable space

b.      Enclosure

c.       Street  

d.      Scale

e.       Nature

                                                               i.      Water

                                                             ii.      Sun

                                                            iii.      Trees & Vegetation

f.        Food

g.       Performance