Studyguide III

Intro to the City


Ch. 9  Housing, Pt. 1

Census definition of “overcrowding”

Housing as a right vs. private property

“Social housing”

“Neighborhood effect” on housing value

Character of “slumlords”

Effect of social & economic forces on physical condition of housing




“Level debt” instrument

Effect of interest rates on homeownership

Ratio of income to monthly mortgage payment

Required downpayment vs. mortgage insurance

Average residential lending terms prior to 1930

“Balloon” payment

Role of federal government in mortgage market

            --FHA insurance

            --VA insurance

            --secondary mortgages (FMNA & GNMA)

Tax deductions for homeowners


Planned communities (Reston, Columbia, Milton Keynes, Greenbelt MD)


Ch. 10  Housing, Pt. 2

Effect of housing type decision on local community

1.  Federal Policies

            --1937 Housing Act—subsidized both capital and operating costs of local housing authorities (Pruitt-Igoe; Cabrini Green)

            --1949 Housing Act—Urban Renewal (both housing and economic development; cleared blighted downtowns, but demolished more housing than it built

            --1974 Housing & Community Development Act—Model Cities (urban development block grants, local participation, “urban homesteading”)

2.  Housing Segregation

            --1968 Civil Rights Act & housing segregation

                        >racial streering

                        >”terms & conditions”



            --1978 Community Reinvestment Act—banks must reinvest in communities which provide their assets

            --Persistence of segregation

                        >income disparity

                        >tipping point (“white flight”)

                        >discrimination in sales & renting

                        >discrimination in mortgage lending


            --Nonprofits & housing

                        >Nehemiah project

                        >Habitat for Humanity


Ch. 11  Melting Pots, Mosaics, and Salad Bowls

Melting pot


Salad Bowl


Ch. 12  Immigration

Statistical background:

Decade when immigration into US exceeded 1 million

Decade of highest immigration into US (9,095,417 for 1991-2000)

Decades when immigration exceeded 4 million

Immigration Law

            1852 Chinese Exclusion Act

            1921 Quota Act (ended open immigration; quotas based on 1890 levels)

            1965  Immigration & Nationality Act (family unification)

            1980  Refugee Act

            1986  Immigration Reform and Control Act (permitted undocumented immigrants to apply for citizenship)

            1990 Immigration Act (increased quota and established lottery to diversify immigrant stream)

Views on immigration

            --without immigration, US population would be dropping

            --open borders are like open markets

            --immigrants make important economic contributions

            --immigration increases pressure on natural resources

            --immigration depresses wages

            --immigration hinders progress of existing minority groups

            --immigration dilutes national identity


Ch. 13  Poverty—Background

Poverty line—level

Poverty line—basis

Why hasn’t poverty declined since early 1970s?

            --Structure of poverty


                        >family structure

            --Urban “ghetto”

                        >meaning of term (shtetl)

                        >disappearance of work


Ch. 14  Poverty & Public Policy

History of Programs’

            --New Deal:  AFDC, WPA (“worthy poor”)

            --1964  Economic Opportunity Act--War on Poverty (roots of poverty are systematic rather than individual)

                        > CAPs (“maximum feasible participation”)—HeadStart, VISTA

                        >Manpower development—JobCorps (1964), CETA (1973),  JTPA (1983)

            --1965  Food Stamp program & Medicaid

            --1970’s—HEW studies (DIME & SIME) find that income support reduces hours worked and increases divorce & separation

            --1996—Comprehensive Welfare Reform Act

                        >abolished AFDC

                        >limited public assistance to 5 years over a lifetime

                        >welfare to work provisions


Ch. 15  Crime & Criminal Justice

Geography of crime

Trends in crime



            --growth in prison population

Deterrence vs. iimprisonment

Trends in policing

            --community policing

            --“broken window” effect

            --“hardening the target”

Perspectives on Crime

            --Classical  (protection of society)

            --Retribution (punish the offender)

            --Sociological (change the social structure that supports crime)

            --Medical Model (profile & prevent)


Ch. 16  Public Education

Public Education as a system

Task of public schools




            >family dynamics

            >worker training

Coleman report (1966)

            >de facto segregation

            >differences in funding explain small part of differences in pupil achievement

            >family background explains greater part of differences in achievement

            >classmates’ background also explains significant part of achievement differences


            >School financing (disparities between school systems)

            >School busing (addressing de facto segregation vs. neighborhood schools)

            >Bilingual education (many non-native speakers want their children to speak English)

            >Competition in the system


                        --charter schools