URSI 100--Introduction to the City

Design With Style



I.                   Elements of Design

a.       Space

                                                               i.      Openness/closure

1.      1:1—45 degrees; fullenclosure

2.      1:2—30 degrees; enclosure

3.      1:3—22 degrees, minimal enclosure

4.      1:4—18 degrees, no enclosure

                                                             ii.      shade/illumination

                                                            iii.      focal point/infinity

                                                           iv.      stand-alone (monumental) vs. connected (intimate)

b.      Scale

                                                               i.      Modularity (4x8; 1 tatami)

                                                             ii.      Visual distance

1.      intimate (up to 80 ft.)

2.      urbane (80-450 feet)

3.      monumental (400-4,000 feet)

                                                            iii.      Circulation (pedestrian vs. auto)

                                                           iv.      Articulation (repetition creates impression of larger size)

c.       Color & Texture

                                                               i.      Day vs. night

                                                             ii.      Patina

                                                            iii.      Texture is to the hand what color is to the eye

d.      Furnishings

                                                               i.      Provide scale

                                                             ii.      Identity

                                                            iii.      Problem of clutter


II.                 Principles of Design

a.       Functionalism

                                                               i.      Utility (“Form follows function”)

                                                             ii.      Clarity

                                                            iii.      Honesty

                                                           iv.      Compare with principles of decorativeness, mystery/magic

b.      Symmetry

                                                               i.      Equilibrium

                                                             ii.      Regularity

                                                            iii.      Focus

                                                           iv.      Compare with dynamism, surprise, movement

c.       Diversity (Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities)

                                                               i.      Mixture of uses

                                                             ii.      Short city blocks

                                                            iii.      Mixture in age of buildings

                                                           iv.      Density

                                                             v.      Compare with suburban values of simplicity, single use, long curving streets, common age, privacy & open space


III.               Levels of Design

a.       Buildings

                                                               i.      Greek Revival

                                                             ii.      Gothic revival

                                                            iii.      French Second Empire 1, 2

                                                           iv.      Italianate

                                                             v.      Romanesque

                                                           vi.      Victorian & Queen Anne

                                                          vii.      Craftsman

                                                        viii.      Prairie 1, 2

                                                           ix.      Art Deco/Art Moderne

                                                             x.      Modernism 1, 2, 3, 4

                                                           xi.      Post-Modernism 1, 2, 3

b.      Neighborhoods

                                                               i.      Radburn, NJ (Clarence Stein)

                                                             ii.      “Neighborhood Unit” (Clarence Perry)

                                                            iii.      Image of City (Kevin Lynch)

1.      districts

2.      edges

3.      nodes

4.      paths

5.      landmarks

c.       Cities

                                                               i.      Satellite

                                                             ii.      Spread

                                                            iii.      Radial



2003 A.J.Filipovitch
Revised 29 March 06