URSI 100--Introduction to the City

Design for Living



I.                   Personal Space

a.       Sense of Place

b.      Perceived Space

                                                               i.      Proximate & Distance receptors

                                                             ii.      Cultural differences

c.       Lived Space

                                                               i.      Personal space (“bubble”)

                                                             ii.      Territory

                                                            iii.      Home range

                                                           iv.      Distances

1.      intimate (less than 3 feet)

2.      personal (2-6 feet)

3.      social (5-20 feet)

4.      public (greater than 40 feet)


II.                 Impact of Urbanization on Society

a.       Class mobility

                                                               i.      Geographical

                                                             ii.      Occupational (individual or generational)

                                                            iii.      Property (“living with strangers”)

b.      Specialization & fragmentation

                                                               i.      Children

                                                             ii.      Families

                                                            iii.      Women


III.               Social Structure of the City

a.       Large Size

                                                               i.      Anomie

                                                             ii.      Law of interaction

                                                            iii.      Overmanning

                                                           iv.      Sensory overload

b.      Density

                                                               i.      Physical density (number of people per unit of space)

                                                             ii.      Social density (number of interactions per unit of space)

                                                            iii.      Crowding (perception of “too many people”)

1.      behavioral sink (John C. Calhoun)

2.      excessive social stimulation (Jeanette Desor)

3.      chaotic stimulation (Chalsa Loo)

a.       propinquity vs. proximity (Festinger, Schachter & Back)

b.      structure of interactions (Leo Kuper)

c.       Heterogeneity (diversity)

                                                               i.      Laumann—like seeks like

                                                             ii.      Lofland—world of strangers

                                                            iii.      Gans—“Balanced Community” (heterogeneous sectors composed of homogeneous blocks)


I.                    Neighborhood and Community

a.       Concept of neighborhood

                                                               i.      Ebenezer Howard—Garden Cities

                                                             ii.      Clarence Perry—Neighborhood Unit

                                                            iii.      Gerald Suttles—Ordered segmentation

                                                           iv.      Terrence Lee—Neighborhood of acquaintance

1.      personal

2.      homogeneous

3.      social acquaintance

b.      Role of Neighborhood—homogeneity

                                                               i.      Patterns of communication

1.      barriers (people do not like to cross “dead spaces”)

2.      cultural grouping (and associated amenities)

                                                             ii.      Family life cycle (physical contiguity not enough—social contiguity is also important)

                                                            iii.      Safety & Security

1.      “Eyes on the street”—Jane Jacobs

2.      Oscar Newman “Defensible Space”

a.       Casual surveillance

b.      Hierarchy of space

                                                                                                                                       i.      Public

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Semi-public

                                                                                                                                    iii.      Private

c.       Neighborhood Perception

                                                               i.      Class differences (middle-class are used to moving, their identity is less tied to place)

                                                             ii.      Role differences (Donald Appleyard)

1.      Planners & designers see city in terms of its future, across a variety of interests and areas

2.      Residents are concerned with their present circumstance, specific interests, and particular neighborhood



2003 A.J.Filipovitch
Revised 1 January 06